Upper limb amputees, who typically struggle to learn how to use a new prosthesis, would be more successful if fellow amputees taught them, new research suggests. Most usually learn by watching a non-amputee demonstrate the device during physical therapy and rehabilitation sessions. A study that measured arm movements and analyzed brain patterns found that people do better when they learn from someone who looks like them.
Striga, also known as witchweed, is a parasitic plant that affects 100 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. Researchers have made a discovery that could lead to more effective ways to protect farmers' crops.
Most materials swell when warm, and shrink when cool. But some weird materials do the opposite. Although thermal expansion, and the cracking and warping that often result, occurs everyday -- in buildings, electronics, and almost anything else exposed to wide temperature swings -- physicists have trouble explaining why solids behave that way. New research into a material that has negative thermal expansion may lead to a better understanding of why materials change volume with temperature at all.
Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use cause epigenetic changes to DNA that reflect accelerated biological aging in distinct, measurable ways, according to research. The researchers estimated biological age using a previously validated epigenetic "clock" , calculated the difference between biological age and chronological age, and assessed the relationship between tobacco and alcohol use and premature aging.
Scientists engineered stem cells to better understand the mechanisms behind a form of leukemia caused by changes in a key gene, according to a study led by Mount Sinai researchers and published online today in the journal Cell Reports.
New research may revolutionize the slow, cumbersome and expensive process of detecting the antibodies that can help with the diagnosis of infectious and auto-immune diseases. New research may revolutionize the slow, cumbersome and expensive process of detecting the antibodies that can help with the diagnosis of infectious and auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and HIV. An international team of researchers have designed and synthetized a nanometer-scale DNA "machine" whose customized modifications enable it to recognize a specific target antibody. Their new approach, which they described this month in Angewandte Chemie, promises to support the development of rapid, low-cost antibody detection at the point-of-care, eliminating the treatment initiation delays and increasing healthcare costs associated with current techniques.
Sezary syndrome (SS), an aggressive leukemia of mature T cells, is more complicated at a molecular level than ever suspected, according to investigators from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. With a poor prognosis and limited options for targeted therapies, fighting SS needs new treatment approaches. The team's results uncover a previously unknown, complex genomic landscape of this cancer, which can be used to design new personalized drug regimens for SS patients based on their unique genetic makeup.
Cells of multicellular organisms contain identical genetic material (the genome) yet can have drastic differences in their structural arrangements and functions. This variation of the distinct cell types comes from the differential expression of genes, which is controlled by interplay between different regulators within the cells, such as transcription factors, the transcription machinery, and the "epigenetic" modifications (which do not change the underlying genetic code) that occur on the DNA and protein factors within chromatin.
Age-related macular degeneration could be treated by transplanting photoreceptors produced by the directed differentiation of stem cells Age-related macular degeneration (AMRD) could be treated by transplanting photoreceptors produced by the directed differentiation of stem cells, thanks to findings published today by Professor Gilbert Bernier of the University of Montreal and its affiliated Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. ARMD is a common eye problem caused by the loss of cones. Bernier's team has developed a highly effective in vitro technique for producing light sensitive retina cells from human embryonic stem cells. "Our method has the capacity to differentiate 80% of the stem cells into pure cones," Professor Gilbert explained. "Within 45 days, the cones that we allowed to grow towards confluence spontaneously formed organised retinal tissue that was 150 microns thick. This has never been achieved before."